Modi’s Education Fantasy

Modi’s Education Fantasy | So Sue me – Sid Harth

www.sidileak.com/?p=3750

6 hours ago – September 5, 2014 elcidharth Leave a comment … If Modi has a substantial education-improving plans, I would like to hear them or read them …

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Teachers’ Day: PM Modi addresses students across India – Prime Minister Narendra Modi addressed millions of students and teachers across the nation on Teachers’ Day. He had introduced this practice in Gujarat several years ago and this
was his attempt to bring another ‘Gujarat model’ on the national stage. http://ow.ly/2MZxnh
Padma Natarajan's profile photo
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Padma Natarajan

12:37 PM

A  good  model  from  any  nook  and  corner  of  this  globe  is  welcome  for  development  knowledge and  what  not.  At least  Modi  addressed  the  students  straight  and  not  like  other  leaders  who  ruled  for  the  last  60  and  odd  years

Sid Harth

2:53 PM

*Sid Harth (USA)Modi’s intentions are good. His mouth runs ahead of his thinking processes. Education is a very complex field. More complex than running a government. He, fortunately a head of government and claims to rule for at least two terms. Very encouraging thought. His political philosophy, such as it is described by others, not his followers raises more than few questions.1. What was Modi’s object in giving a lecture to primary school students? That too ninety minutes long?
2. As I observed–by photos published in media, none could understand Modi’s rhetoric.
3. If Modi has a substantial education-improving plans, I would like to hear them or read them in media, not on his social media.
4. Education in other countries is far superior to what India has to offer. I am referring to scientific, and psychological studies.
5. Modi has no authority, none whatsoever, judging his political background. Why is he pushing his image as an educationist?
6. Indian formal education was introduced by British Raj. Not that it matters whether the person or persons of that era were themselves educationists.
7. The one good thing that system did to masses, was to open normal and secular education to all.
8. Through that system, many scholars, scientists, thinkers and administrators came.
9. Modi wants, at least in his native state, Gujarat, students read his Hindutva Nationalistic history, geography and pure and unadulterated–third rate Hindu mythology.
10. Thank god, not his fake and fictitious biography. Education needs to be secular, as it does not work in higher education. A student learns his or her religious beliefs from their parents, neighbors. Let them learn more from whatever sources they choose, not by reading Modi style caricature of religion. That brings me to a point I want to make. The constitution is faith neutral. Modi has no authority to bring in his funny ideas into spheres he is not a ‘master’ or a ‘task master.-dictator. Being a citizen of political India, Modi has every right to express his personal opinion or opinions. The same right of another citizen, not his follower, must be given the same prominence. If I were that person, thank god, I am not, I shall do a better job, without boring my audience in less than ten minutes. Approximately time of child’s attention span. Anything more would confuse the child or dumb his senses….and I am Sid Harth

Sid Harth

3:03 PM

#Padma Natarajan,Do you have your own ideas about basic and advance formal education?
Are you sufficiently educated in such formal education, yourself to pass a judgment?
I assume that you were born in India and have personal experience of how you were cheated by other administrations–aka–Nehru-Gandhi-dynasty.I am going to cite a published article: I want you to tell me if PM Modi has anything to do with it. Be honest and fair, that helps.Asia Pacific | Letter From India
India’s Education Act Aims to Lift the Poor
By MANU JOSEPHSEPT. 3, 2014NEW DELHI — Is that her mother or her maid?
That was the question a little girl asked out loud about the woman who had accompanied her schoolmate to a birthday party. In any segment of the Indian urban population, the visual distinction between mothers and maids is sacred. The maids look impoverished and servile, and in a room filled with the master class they are encouraged to achieve invisibility.
The target of the question at the party was of modest means, but she was with the affluent mothers — like an equal, which she was. Her child was a beneficiary of the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act, which took effect in 2010. The act requires that all private schools in India, except those run by and for minority communities, reserve 25 percent of their seats for children in the neighborhood who are from 6 to 14 years of age and socially or financially disadvantaged. The schools must also provide this education free.
Continue reading the main story
Related Coverage
Letter From India: The Reality of English’s Role in IndiaAUG. 6, 2014
video
In India, Complications for EducationDEC. 31, 2013
India Opens a Door to Private EducationAUG. 19, 2012
In affluent parts of Indian society, such students are known as “E.W.S.” (Economically Weaker Section), an abbreviation that is spoken in hushed tones.
Long before the act came into force, there was opposition to it. The gracious reasoning of the middle class was that the poor, once uprooted from their islands of poverty, would be made to feel small. The more practical reasoning was that schools would raise fees for paying students to make up for the loss of revenue, or increase enrollments, thereby diminishing the quality of education. Also, there was a fear that their children might contract diseases from the poor.
In a society where the primal instinct of the classes is to collide rather than to integrate, the education act is creating situations that nobody knows how to resolve. When a school in New Delhi announced a pool party for its first grade, the affluent parents decided to donate swimwear to the poor students. But on the day of the party, only the poor children turned up. The other children were kept away by their parents because they did not wish their children to share the pool with the poor.
Across the country, many private schools have chosen not to take students from the “weaker sections.” Many that do so have different classrooms or schedules for them even though the law forbids such segregation.
“The act is here to stay, but there is no regulation,” said Sunil Batra, director of education at Shikshantar, a highly regarded school in Gurgaon, near Delhi, which has enthusiastically complied with the act. “What happens to schools that don’t comply? There is no answer. State and central governments are yet to determine the methods by which the act will be regulated.”
One school in the National Capital Region — the area around New Delhi — does not have a single student from the disadvantaged section.
“There is no demand,” said the school’s owner, who asked not to be identified. “The poor have not applied — not one. And frankly, we are not chasing them, either. Maybe there is not enough awareness. Maybe they are too scared to walk into an expensive school.”
The largest owner of schools in India is the government, and its demand that the private sector take on the burden of educating the poor is, even though couched in the high purpose of abolishing barriers between the rich and the poor, an admission that the quality of its own schools is irredeemably pathetic.
“A majority of India’s private schools are just marginally better than the government schools,” said Ram Chand, who runs a private school in the capital region. “So what’s the government’s logic?”
But he agreed that the poor who attend the best private schools have benefited immensely. Two years ago, at his daughter’s birthday party, he too witnessed an indigent child arrive with her mother, and both of them had a miserable time. The next year, the mother dropped her daughter at the gates and refused to enter the house.
“But the girl was not afraid of the rich anymore — she had a great time,” Mr. Chand said. “She was transformed.”
Manu Joseph is author of the novel “The Illicit Happiness of Other People.”
© 2014 The New York Times Company

I am waiting, dear Padma Natarajan.

…and I am Sid harth

Sid Harth

3:06 PM

#Padma Natarajan
Does indian education offer any quality?
I am formally educated in India. So, i decided why not write about the poor quality of education in India. Let me tell you, Indian education is over hyped. I accept India is a great country but Indian education on the other hand is not great at all. I am a B.Tech computer engineer and i got all my education in India. Education in India is 99% focused on theoretical aspects. That’s why more and more people in India are unemployed and even if they get employed they are given former training to equip them with the latest industry trends. If you say me to rate Indian education, I will give it a flat 3 out of 10. So why is Indian education so much worse? why?
Because of the following reasons:
The faculty in Indian colleges are neither trained well nor they have that much knowledge. Remember i am not talking about IITs and like colleges. Gone are the days when teaching was considered a good profession. Now people generally go in the teaching line because they did not get job elsewhere. There are exceptions however.
Now teachers do not want to teach students they just want to do their jobs.
Teacher themselves are not too curious.Today technology is virtually changing every six months.They just have outdated knowledge which does not serve any purpose today.
The syllabus itself is very old and nobody is taking pains to change or modify them.
B.Tech is a great course because it takes 4 years of our life but what do we get in return- Just superficial knowledge on each and every subject which never helps even a bit in our future endeavors.Nobody wants to take a fresh graduates because they know fresh graduates do not have anything to offer to the industry. I blame it full on the indian politicians and education systems.
Partially quoted……and I am Sid harth

Sid Harth

3:08 PM

#Padma Natarajan
Quality Education Package for primary schools
© UNICEF
Education quality has received a great deal of attention in recent years. There is agreement that quality needs to be improved. Yet, there appears to be very little consensus on what improved quality really means in India and what factors contribute to its development.
According to research, a child’s participation in school and the amount that he or she learns is dependant on several factors such as familial influences, education, occupation and income. Other household and school-related factors are also important.
Some tangible school-related factors which have a positive impact on quality:
Class size
Separate learning spaces for each class
Child-centred teaching-learning practices
Use of classroom relevant teaching-learning materials
Continuous assessment of students understanding
Teacher knowledge
Regular evaluation of teaching-learning practices
Continuous professional development for the teacher
Time devoted to teaching by teachers
School meals
Health programmes, such as de-worming
Availability of clean drinking water
Separate toilets for girls
Addressing these school-level factors can make a significant difference to the quality of school environment. They can positively impact attendance, retention and transition levels, as well as gender issues, learning achievements and community participation.
Going to school will be a motivating experience if strategies are implemented to stimulate innate curiosity through active, participatory learning; facilitate increase in knowledge levels; develop relevant life skills; and create a child-friendly, hygienic and aesthetically pleasing environment.
As part of its mandate, UNICEF India has conceptualized a holistic, gender-sensitive Quality Education Package for implementation in primary schools. The QEP Project involves a multi-pronged approach, involving strategies for the facilitation of across-the-board improvements in the entire curricular package, including teaching-learning materials, classroom transactions, teacher training, assessment and examinations. The package simultaneously assists in building community-school linkages and dealing with infrastructure and environment issues.
A holistic broad-based approach is of particular importance to ensure meaningful, sustainable achievements.
The Project supports the improvement of quality in primary schools through interventions in four key areas:
In-service teacher training and support to improve active learning, continuous, supportive student assessment and rational class management.
Development and supply of essential teaching-learning materials.
Promotion of community participation.
Improvement of school environment and facilities.
The hallmark of the quality education package is its focus on the widest possible school canvas and emphasis on delivery of solutions in an integrated fashion.
Key elements essential to successful scaling up have been built into the QEP Project:
Planned transfer of critical skills;
Measures to ensure the participation of critical population mass in the pilot phase; and
Planned advocacy and information dissemination to ensure systemic support for the scaling up process.
The Project acknowledges that realizing the desired quality standards in the project schools requires partnership between government civil society and other key stakeholders.
Indeed, the QEP Project has been designed specifically to catalyse and foster a positive, participative community outlook and deliver a sustainable impact over a relatively brief period of time.
My dear Padma Natarajan, I am still waiting patiently….and I am Sid harth

Sid Harth

3:11 PM

#Padma Natarajan
Stanford Report, August 19, 2013
Stanford scholars find varying quality of science and tech education in Brazil, Russia, India and China
In an effort to create world-class university systems, Brazil, Russia, India and China are funneling resources to higher education institutions. Stanford scholars look at the effects of such an expansion and whether these grads can compete in the global knowledge economy.By Brooke Donald
AP/Mustafa Quraishi
A new book by Stanford scholars and others analyzes the quality of institutions, the number of people getting degrees and equal access to education in the developing economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China. Here, students in India work on a chemistry project.America may have legitimate competitive reasons to worry about the number of computer science and engineering graduates from elite Chinese and Indian universities – the figure dwarfs that of U.S. students with similar degrees.
But a new book by Stanford researchers and others says that the concern that these countries will develop their own centers of high-tech production and innovation and draw research, development and scholarship away from American shores is still premature.
The research, a multidisciplinary look at the growth of higher education in the world’s four largest developing economies – Brazil, Russia, India and China (known collectively as the BRICs) – analyzes the quality of institutions, the quantity of people getting degrees and equal access to education.
How long does it take, dear, Padma Natarajan, to respond? Not forever, I believe.

Sid Harth

3:12 PM

#Padma Natarajan
The book, University Expansion in a Changing Global Economy: Triumph of the BRICS?, is published by Stanford University Press.
“In the past 20 years, university systems in these big countries have just exploded,” said Martin Carnoy, a Stanford professor of education and one of the authors. “So the questions are why did it happen and what are the implications? And specifically, what are the implications for the U.S. if the market is flooded with new scientists and engineers? Are we going to be overwhelmed? What happens to their societies if all the energy is focused on elite institutions?”
The researchers approached their questions with the belief that societies, and governments, can be judged by the way they invest in and organize their public higher education systems.
For example, how well these countries create a labor force that is competitive in the information age depends on the quality of higher education. Whether people have equal chances to succeed relies on having colleges that are accessible to even the poorest students. And how effectively a country expands its university system may determine how successful it is at growing a robust economy and competing with the United States and Europe, the scholars argue.
“If you have economic growth and provide educational opportunities, you’re perceived as a legitimate, successful government,” Carnoy said. “So our theory was, if you can pull this off, if you can successfully expand your university systems, you are likely a pretty efficient government.”
BRIC undergraduate education increased from about 19 million students in 2000 to more than 40 million students in 2010. The largest increase was in China, which went from less than 3 million to almost 12 million bachelor’s degree students during that period, the study says.
Financing elite schools
The study found that BRIC countries are pouring money into their elite colleges in an effort to create world-class institutions and have their graduates compete with the United States and Europe.
Researchers say the elite colleges are much better for the focused investment, and the engineers and computer scientists are graduating with similar competency and training as those from developed countries.
But the mass institutions are receiving fewer resources, the study says, and that’s where most of the students go. In 2009, 2.1 million of the 2.5 million total bachelor’s graduates in China matriculated from mass institutions, not elite ones. In India, it was 2.2 million of 2.3 million.
AP/Manish Swarup
Students read college application forms for admission to undergraduate courses at Delhi University in New Delhi, India. Delhi University has over 300,000 students and is one of the largest universities in the world.
This widening funding gap between top schools and mass institutions has broad implications, the scholars argue. The gap has the potential to slow economic growth domestically, deepen income inequality and create less social mobility.
Students who go to the mass institutions aren’t getting high quality, competitive educational experiences, the study says, and many of the students also get stuck with big bills as funding assistance is directed toward the elite universities.
“What happens, then, is they are doing a good job of educating students at the elite levels, but they are not doing a good job of educating students at the non-elite levels who are also fundamental for the economy,” said Prashant Loyalka, a research fellow at Stanford’s Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and one of the study’s authors.
In absolute terms, the sheer numbers of students graduating from elite institutions in computer science and engineering majors in these countries is also high. In China, for example, the total number of computer science and engineering graduates from elite universities is more than the total number of such graduates from the United States.
But sustaining and building innovation hubs requires more than the elite, the researchers said. The engine of these new economies is the rest of the population – those that attend mass institutions.
“In the United States, we have relied on competent second-tier engineers. They are the guts of our system. We need good students in all fields in these second-tier universities because the top-tier universities just don’t produce that many graduates. They simply don’t,” Carnoy said.
He warned that this redistribution of funds away from second-tier institutions is a concern in the United States as well. “To an extent the BRICs have to do it, because they don’t have enough resources to go around. But do we have to do it? The answer is probably no. It certainly should be no,” Carnoy said.
The research is one of the first empirical and comparative looks at the higher education systems across these countries, and relied on in-country interviews, surveys, data analysis and classroom observation.
Report card
Overall, the researchers found that significant challenges remain as these countries march toward creating universities that can rank alongside those in the United States and Europe.
China, the scholars said, is doing pretty well, but Russia and Brazil are question marks.
“Russia has provided the vast majority of its people with a high level of education, but it has lagged in terms of putting money into research,” Loyalka said. “Brazil has a high-level of graduate education and research at its top-tier public institutions, and these institutions are receiving a lot of support. However, the vast majority of students attend private institutions, which are, on average, of dubious quality.”
India, Loyalka noted, was surprising. Despite its very good technical universities, he said, “you have a small proportion of Indians going to those, and the mass institutions are of really poor quality.”
“The higher education system in India does not appear to be well organized,” Loyalka said.
Among other recommendations, the researchers said India should increase its graduate education and, along with Russia, increase spending on research.
The project began in 2007 as an interdisciplinary venture supported by the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford, and incorporated scholars in economics and international comparative education at Stanford Graduate School of Education, the Freeman Spogli Institute and universities in Moscow and Beijing.
Several articles focusing on different aspects of the review also have been published over the past year. The most recent, which appears in the July/August issue of the journal Change, highlights the research on quality and quantity of graduates in engineering and computer science from the four countries.
Besides Carnoy and Loyalka, the scholars involved in the project include Maria Dobryakova, a research associate and the director for portals at the Center for Monitoring Quality Education at the Higher School of Economics in Moscow; Rafiq Dossani, a senior economist at RAND Corp. and former senior research scholar at Stanford’s Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center at the Freeman Spogli Institute; Isak Froumin, a mathematician and director of the Institute for Educational Studies at the National Research University Higher School of Economics in Moscow; Katherine Kuhns, who received her PhD in the International and Comparative Education Program at Stanford Graduate School of Education; Jandhyala B. G. Tilak, a professor at the National University of Educational Planning and Administration in New Delhi, India; and Rong Wang, director and professor of the China Institute for Educational Finance Research at Peking University.
Media Contact
Brooke Donald, Stanford News Service: (650) 725-0224, brooke.donald@stanford.edu
…and I am Sid Harth

Sid Harth

3:13 PM

#Padma Natarajan
The Education System in India
by Dr. V. Sasi Kumar(1)
In the Beginning
In ancient times, India had the Gurukula system of education in which anyone who wished to study went to a teacher’s (Guru) house and requested to be taught. If accepted as a student by the guru, he would then stay at the guru’s place and help in all activities at home. This not only created a strong tie between the teacher and the student, but also taught the student everything about running a house. The guru taught everything the child wanted to learn, from Sanskrit to the holy scriptures and from Mathematics to Metaphysics. The student stayed as long as she wished or until the guru felt that he had taught everything he could teach. All learning was closely linked to nature and to life, and not confined to memorizing some information.
The modern school system was brought to India, including the English language, originally by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay in the 1830s. The curriculum was confined to “modern” subjects such as science and mathematics, and subjects like metaphysics and philosophy were considered unnecessary. Teaching was confined to classrooms and the link with nature was broken, as also the close relationship between the teacher and the student.
The Uttar Pradesh (a state in India) Board of High School and Intermediate Education was the first Board set up in India in the year 1921 with jurisdiction over Rajputana, Central India and Gwalior. In 1929, the Board of High School and Intermediate Education, Rajputana, was established. Later, boards were established in some of the states. But eventually, in 1952, the constitution of the board was amended and it was renamed Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). All schools in Delhi and some other regions came under the Board. It was the function of the Board to decide on things like curriculum, textbooks and examination system for all schools affiliated to it. Today there are thousands of schools affiliated to the Board, both within India and in many other countries from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe.
Universal and compulsory education for all children in the age group of 6-14 was a cherished dream of the new government of the Republic of India. This is evident from the fact that it is incorporated as a directive policy in article 45 of the constitution. But this objective remains far away even more than half a century later. However, in the recent past, the government appears to have taken a serious note of this lapse and has made primary education a Fundamental Right of every Indian citizen. The pressures of economic growth and the acute scarcity of skilled and trained manpower must certainly have played a role to make the government take such a step. The expenditure by the Government of India on school education in recent years comes to around 3% of the GDP, which is recognized to be very low.
“In recent times, several major announcements were made for developing the poor state of affairs in education sector in India, the most notable ones being the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government. The announcements are; (a) To progressively increase expenditure on education to around 6 percent of GDP. (b) To support this increase in expenditure on education, and to increase the quality of education, there would be an imposition of an education cess over all central government taxes. (c) To ensure that no one is denied of education due to economic backwardness and poverty. (d) To make right to education a fundamental right for all children in the age group 6–14 years. (e) To universalize education through its flagship programmes such as Sarva Siksha Abhiyan and Mid Day Meal.” Wikipedia: Education in India.

Sid Harth

3:14 PM

#Padma NatarajanThe School System
India is divided into 28 states and 7 so-called “Union Territories”. The states have their own elected governments while the Union Territories are ruled directly by the Government of India, with the President of India appointing an administrator for each Union Territory. As per the constitution of India, school education was originally a state subject —that is, the states had complete authority on deciding policies and implementing them. The role of the Government of India (GoI) was limited to coordination and deciding on the standards of higher education. This was changed with a constitutional amendment in 1976 so that education now comes in the so-called concurrent list. That is, school education policies and programmes are suggested at the national level by the GoI though the state governments have a lot of freedom in implementing programmes. Policies are announced at the national level periodically. The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE), set up in 1935, continues to play a lead role in the evolution and monitoring of educational policies and programmes.
There is a national organization that plays a key role in developing policies and programmes, called the National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) that prepares a National Curriculum Framework. Each state has its counterpart called the State Council for Educational Research and Training (SCERT). These are the bodies that essentially propose educational strategies, curricula, pedagogical schemes and evaluation methodologies to the states’ departments of education. The SCERTs generally follow guidelines established by the NCERT. But the states have considerable freedom in implementing the education system.
The National Policy on Education, 1986 and the Programme of Action (POA) 1992 envisaged free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality for all children below 14 years before the 21st Century. The government committed to earmark 6% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for education, half of which would be spent on primary education. The expenditure on Education as a percentage of GDP also rose from 0.7 per cent in 1951-52 to about 3.6 per cent in 1997-98.
The school system in India has four levels: lower primary (age 6 to 10), upper primary (11 and 12), high (13 to 15) and higher secondary (17 and 18). The lower primary school is divided into five “standards”, upper primary school into two, high school into three and higher secondary into two. Students have to learn a common curriculum largely (except for regional changes in mother tongue) till the end of high school. There is some amount of specialization possible at the higher secondary level. Students throughout the country have to learn three languages (namely, English, Hindi and their mother tongue) except in regions where Hindi is the mother tongue and in some streams as discussed below.
There are mainly three streams in school education in India. Two of these are coordinated at the national level, of which one is under the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and was originally meant for children of central government employees who are periodically transferred and may have to move to any place in the country. A number of “central schools” (named Kendriya Vidyalayas) have been established for the purpose in all main urban areas in the country, and they follow a common schedule so that a student going from one school to another on a particular day will hardly see any difference in what is being taught. One subject (Social Studies, consisting of History, Geography and Civics) is always taught in Hindi, and other subjects in English, in these schools. Kendriya Vidyalayas admit other children also if seats are available. All of them follow textbooks written and published by the NCERT. In addition to these government-run schools, a number of private schools in the country follow the CBSE syllabus though they may use different text books and follow different teaching schedules. They have a certain amount of freedom in what they teach in lower classes. The CBSE also has 141 affiliated schools in 21 other countries mainly catering to the needs of the Indian population there.
The second central scheme is the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE). It seems that this was started as a replacement for the Cambridge School Certificate. The idea was mooted in a conference held in 1952 under the Chairmanship of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the then Minister for Education. The main purpose of the conference was to consider the replacement of the overseas Cambridge School Certificate Examination by an All India Examination. In October 1956 at the meeting of the Inter-State Board for Anglo-Indian Education, a proposal was adopted for the setting up of an Indian Council to administer the University of Cambridge, Local Examinations Syndicate’s Examination in India and to advise the Syndicate on the best way to adapt its examination to the needs of the country. The inaugural meeting of the Council was held on 3rd November, 1958. In December 1967, the Council was registered as a Society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. The Council was listed in the Delhi School Education Act 1973, as a body conducting public examinations. Now a large number of schools across the country are affiliated to this Council. All these are private schools and generally cater to children from wealthy families.
Both the CBSE and the ICSE council conduct their own examinations in schools across the country that are affiliated to them at the end of 10 years of schooling (after high school) and again at the end of 12 years (after higher secondary). Admission to the 11th class is normally based on the performance in this all-India examination. Since this puts a lot of pressure on the child to perform well, there have been suggestions to remove the examination at the end of 10 years.

Sid Harth

3:15 PM

#Padma NatarajanYou may consult our darling ‘task master’ Modi, if you have any doubs.The School System
India is divided into 28 states and 7 so-called “Union Territories”. The states have their own elected governments while the Union Territories are ruled directly by the Government of India, with the President of India appointing an administrator for each Union Territory. As per the constitution of India, school education was originally a state subject —that is, the states had complete authority on deciding policies and implementing them. The role of the Government of India (GoI) was limited to coordination and deciding on the standards of higher education. This was changed with a constitutional amendment in 1976 so that education now comes in the so-called concurrent list. That is, school education policies and programmes are suggested at the national level by the GoI though the state governments have a lot of freedom in implementing programmes. Policies are announced at the national level periodically. The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE), set up in 1935, continues to play a lead role in the evolution and monitoring of educational policies and programmes.
There is a national organization that plays a key role in developing policies and programmes, called the National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) that prepares a National Curriculum Framework. Each state has its counterpart called the State Council for Educational Research and Training (SCERT). These are the bodies that essentially propose educational strategies, curricula, pedagogical schemes and evaluation methodologies to the states’ departments of education. The SCERTs generally follow guidelines established by the NCERT. But the states have considerable freedom in implementing the education system.
The National Policy on Education, 1986 and the Programme of Action (POA) 1992 envisaged free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality for all children below 14 years before the 21st Century. The government committed to earmark 6% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for education, half of which would be spent on primary education. The expenditure on Education as a percentage of GDP also rose from 0.7 per cent in 1951-52 to about 3.6 per cent in 1997-98.
The school system in India has four levels: lower primary (age 6 to 10), upper primary (11 and 12), high (13 to 15) and higher secondary (17 and 18). The lower primary school is divided into five “standards”, upper primary school into two, high school into three and higher secondary into two. Students have to learn a common curriculum largely (except for regional changes in mother tongue) till the end of high school. There is some amount of specialization possible at the higher secondary level. Students throughout the country have to learn three languages (namely, English, Hindi and their mother tongue) except in regions where Hindi is the mother tongue and in some streams as discussed below.
There are mainly three streams in school education in India. Two of these are coordinated at the national level, of which one is under the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and was originally meant for children of central government employees who are periodically transferred and may have to move to any place in the country. A number of “central schools” (named Kendriya Vidyalayas) have been established for the purpose in all main urban areas in the country, and they follow a common schedule so that a student going from one school to another on a particular day will hardly see any difference in what is being taught. One subject (Social Studies, consisting of History, Geography and Civics) is always taught in Hindi, and other subjects in English, in these schools. Kendriya Vidyalayas admit other children also if seats are available. All of them follow textbooks written and published by the NCERT. In addition to these government-run schools, a number of private schools in the country follow the CBSE syllabus though they may use different text books and follow different teaching schedules. They have a certain amount of freedom in what they teach in lower classes. The CBSE also has 141 affiliated schools in 21 other countries mainly catering to the needs of the Indian population there.
The second central scheme is the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE). It seems that this was started as a replacement for the Cambridge School Certificate. The idea was mooted in a conference held in 1952 under the Chairmanship of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the then Minister for Education. The main purpose of the conference was to consider the replacement of the overseas Cambridge School Certificate Examination by an All India Examination. In October 1956 at the meeting of the Inter-State Board for Anglo-Indian Education, a proposal was adopted for the setting up of an Indian Council to administer the University of Cambridge, Local Examinations Syndicate’s Examination in India and to advise the Syndicate on the best way to adapt its examination to the needs of the country. The inaugural meeting of the Council was held on 3rd November, 1958. In December 1967, the Council was registered as a Society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. The Council was listed in the Delhi School Education Act 1973, as a body conducting public examinations. Now a large number of schools across the country are affiliated to this Council. All these are private schools and generally cater to children from wealthy families.
Both the CBSE and the ICSE council conduct their own examinations in schools across the country that are affiliated to them at the end of 10 years of schooling (after high school) and again at the end of 12 years (after higher secondary). Admission to the 11th class is normally based on the performance in this all-India examination. Since this puts a lot of pressure on the child to perform well, there have been suggestions to remove the examination at the end of 10 years.

Sid Harth

3:16 PM

#Padma NatarajanExclusive Schools
In addition to the above, there are a relatively small number of schools that follow foreign curricula such as the so-called Senior Cambridge, though this was largely superseded by the ICSE stream elsewhere. Some of these schools also offer the students the opportunity to sit for the ICSE examinations. These are usually very expensive residential schools where some of the Indians working abroad send their children. They normally have fabulous infrastructure, low student-teacher ratio and very few students. Many of them have teachers from abroad. There are also other exclusive schools such as the Doon School in Dehradun that take in a small number of students and charge exorbitant fees.
Apart from all of these, there are a handful of schools around the country, such as the Rishi Valley school in Andhra Pradesh, that try to break away from the normal education system that promotes rote learning and implement innovative systems such as the Montessori method. Most such schools are expensive, have high teacher-student ratios and provide a learning environment in which each child can learn at his/her own pace. It would be interesting and instructive to do a study on what impact the kind of school has had on the life of their alumni.

Sid Harth

3:16 PM

#Padma NatarajanState Schools
Each state in the country has its own Department of Education that runs its own school system with its own textbooks and evaluation system. As mentioned earlier, the curriculum, pedagogy and evaluation method are largely decided by the SCERT in the state, following the national guidelines prescribed by the NCERT.
Each state has three kinds of schools that follow the state curriculum. The government runs its own schools in land and buildings owned by the government and paying the staff from its own resources. These are generally known as government schools. The fees are quite low in such schools. Then there are privately owned schools with their own land and buildings. Here the fees are high and the teachers are paid by the management. Such schools mostly cater to the urban middle class families. The third kind consists of schools that are provided grant-in-aid by the government, though the school was started by a private agency in their own land and buildings. The grant-in-aid is meant to help reduce the fees and make it possible for poor families to send their children. In some states like Kerala, these schools are very similar to government schools since the teachers are paid by the government and the fees are the same as in government schools.

Sid Harth

3:17 PM

# Padma NatarajanThe Case of Kerala
The state of Kerala, a small state in the South Western coast of India, has been different from the rest of the country in many ways for the last few decades. It has, for instance, the highest literacy rate among all states, and was declared the first fully literate state about a decade back. Life expectancy, both male and female, is very high, close to that of the developed world. Other parameters such as fertility rate, infant and child mortality are among the best in the country, if not the best. The total fertility rate has been below the replacement rate of 2.1 for the last two decades. Probably as a side-effect of economic and social development, suicide rates and alcoholism are also very high. Government policies also have been very different from the rest of the country, leading to the development model followed in Kerala, with high expenditure in education and welfare, coming to be known as the “Kerala Model“ among economists.
Kerala has also always shown interest in trying out ways of improving its school education system. Every time the NCERT came up with new ideas, it was Kerala that tried it out first. The state experimented with the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) with gusto, though there was opposition to it from various quarters, and even took it beyond primary classes. The state was the first in the country to move from the traditional behaviorist way of teaching to a social constructivist paradigm. It was mentioned in the National Curriculum Framework of NCERT in the year 2000, and Kerala started trying it out the next year. The transaction in the classroom and the evaluation methodology were changed. Instead of direct questions that could be answered only through memorizing the lessons, indirect questions and open ended questions were included so that the student needed to think before answering, and the answers could be subjective to some extent. This meant that the students had to digest what they studied and had to be able to use their knowledge in a specific situation to answer the questions. At the same time, the new method took away a lot of pressure and the children began to find examinations interesting and enjoyable instead of being stressful. A Comprehensive and Continuous Evaluation (CCE) system was introduced along with this, which took into consideration the overall personality of the student and reduced the dependence on a single final examination for deciding promotion to the next class. At present, the CBSE also has implemented CCE, but in a more flexible manner.
Kerala was also the first state in the country to introduce Information Technology as a subject of study at the High School level. It was started in class 8 with the textbook introducing Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office. But within one year the government was forced to include Free Software also in the curriculum by protests from Free Software enthusiasts and a favorable stance taken by a school teachers association that had the majority of government teachers as its members. Eventually, from the year 2007, only GNU/Linux was taught in the schools, and all computers in schools had only GNU/Linux installed. At that time, perhaps even today, this was the largest installation of GNU/Linux in schools, and made headlines even in other countries. Every year, from 2007 onwards, about 500,000 children pass out of the schools learning the concepts behind Free Software and the GNU/Linux operating system and applications. The state is now moving towards IT Enabled Education. Eventually, IT will not be taught as a separate subject. Instead, all subjects will be taught with the help of IT so that the children will, on the one hand, learn IT skills and, on the other, make use of educational applications (such as those mentioned below) and resources in the Internet (such as textual material from sites like Wikipedia, images, animations and videos) to study their subjects and to do exercises. Teachers and students have already started using applications such as Dr. Geo, GeoGebra, and KtechLab for studying geometry and electronics. Applications like Sunclock, Kalzium and Ghemical are also popular among teachers and students.
The initiative taken by Kerala is now influencing other states and even the policies of the Government of India. States like Karnataka and Gujarat are now planning to introduce Free Software in their schools, and some other states like Maharashtra are examining the option. The new education policy of the Government of India speaks about constructivism, IT enabled education, Free Software and sharing educational resources. Once a few of the larger states successfully migrate to Free Software, it is hoped that the entire country would follow suit in a relatively short time. When that happens, India could have the largest user base of GNU/Linux and Free Software in general.
References
http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00generallinks/macaulay/txt_minute_education_1835.html
http://varnam.org/blog/2007/08/the_story_behind_macaulays_edu
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Board_of_Secondary_Education
V. Sasi Kumar is a doctor in physics and a member of the FSF India Board of Directors. He advocates for Free Software and freedom of knowledge.

Sid Harth

3:21 PM

My dear Padma Natarajan, Too many words? You want short and sweet slogans like your hero, Narendra Modi?
lowing is a list of educational institutions that use Sanskrit phrases as their official mottos.
Acharya Nagarjuna University – satye sarvaṃ pratiṣṭhitam / सत्ये सर्वं प्रतिष्ठितम् / satye sarvaM pratiShThitam (Everything is established in truth)
All India Institute of Medical Sciences – śarīramādyaṃ khalu dharmasādhanam / शरीरमाद्यं खलु धर्मसाधनम् / shareeramAdyaM khalu dharmasAdhanam (Body alone is the instrument of doing all duties/deeds, Kumarsambhavam)
Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham – śraddhāvān labhate jñānam / श्रद्धावान् लभते ज्ञानम् / shraddhAvAn labhate GYaanam (Reverent attains wisdom, Rigveda)
Andhra University – tejasvi nāvadhītamastu / तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु / tejasvi naavadhiitamastu (May our knowledge become brilliant)
Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University- tejasvi nāvadhītamastu / तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु / tejasvi naavadhiitamastu (May our knowledge become brilliant)[1]
Banaras Hindu University – vidyayā amṛtaṃ aśnute / विद्ययाऽमृतमश्नुते / vidyayA amRRitaM ashnute (Eat nectar through knowledge, i.e. be immortal through knowledge)
Banasthali Vidyapith – sā vidyā yā vimuktaye / सा विद्या या विमुक्तये / sA vidyA yA vimuktaye (That is knowledge which liberates)
Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur – uttiṣṭha jāgrata prāpya varānnibodhata / उत्तिष्ठ जाग्रत प्राप्य वरान्निबोधत / uttiShTha jAgrata prApya varAnnibodhata (arise, awake, obtaining worthy (teachers), Know (the truth))
Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi – sā vidyā yā vimuktaye / सा विद्या या विमुक्तये / sA vidyA yA vimuktaye (That is knowledge which liberates)
Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani – jñānaṃ paramaṃ balam / ज्ञानं परमं बलम् / GYaanaM paramaM balam (Knowledge is the supreme power)
Central Board of Secondary Education – asato mā sadgamaya / असतो मा सद्गमय / asato mA sadgamaya ((Lead us) From Untruth to Truth)
Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology – swayam tejaswin bhava(Be self-enlightened)
Cochin University of Science and Technology – tejasvi nāvadhītamastu / तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु / tejasvi naavadhiitamastu (May our knowledge become brilliant)[2]
College of Engineering, Trivandrum – karma jyayoghya karmanah
Delhi University – niṣṭhā dhṛtiḥ satyam / निष्ठा धृतिः सत्यम् / niShThA dhRRitiH satyam (Reverent dedication grasps truth)
Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya – dhiyo yo naḥ pracodayāt / धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् / dhiyo yo naH prachodayaat (May (the divine savitA) propel our intellect)
G.B. Pant Engg College (GBPEC) Pauri – tamaso mā jyotirgamaya / तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय / tamaso mA jyotirgamaya ((Lead us) From Darkness to Light)
Gujarat National Law University – ā no bhadrāḥ kratavo yantu viśvataḥ (1.89.1 rigveda) / आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः / A no bhadraaH kratavo yantu vishvataH (Let good (thoughts) come from everywhere, from all the world)
Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University – ज्योतिवृ्णीत तमसो विजानऩ /jyotivranit tamso vijajnam

Sid Harth

3:21 PM

#Padma NatarajanHans Raj College – तमसो मॅा ज्योतिर गमय / Tamso ma jyotir gamaya
Hidayatullah National Law University – Dharma Sansthapanartham (for the sake of establishing the primacy of the laws of eternal value).
Hooghly Collegiate School – tamaso mā jyotirgamaya / तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय / tamaso mA jyotirgamaya ((Lead us) From Darkness to Light)
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur – yogaḥ karmasu kauśalam / योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् / yogaH karmasu kaushalam (excellence in action is yoga)
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay – jñānaṃ paramaṃ dhyeyam / ज्ञानं परमं ध्येयम् / GYaanaM paramaM dhyeyam (knowledge is the supreme goal)
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati – jñān hee shakti hai / ज्ञान ही शक्ति है / GYaan hee Shakti hai (Knowledge Is Power)[3]
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur – tamaso mā jyotirgamaya / तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय / tamaso mA jyotirgamaya ((Lead us) From Darkness to Light)
Indian Institute of Technology Madras – siddhirbhavati karmajā / सिद्धिर्भवति कर्मजा / siddhirbhavati karmajA (success is born of action)
Indian Institute of Technology Patna – vidyarthi labhate vidyam / विद्यार्थी लभते विद्याम / vidyarthi labhate vidyam (One who aspires wisdom, attains it)
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee – śramam vinā na kimapi sādhyam / श्रमम् विना न किमपि साध्यम् / shramam vinA na kimapi sAdhyam (Without effort nothing is possible)
Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad – vidyā viniyogāt vikāsaḥ / विद्या विनियोगात् विकासः / vidyA viniyogAt vikAsaH (Progress comes from proper application of knowledge)
Indian Institute of Management Bangalore – tejasvi nāvadhītamastu / तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु / tejasvi naavadhiitamastu (May our knowledge become brilliant)
Indian Institute of Management Lucknow – suprabandhe rashtra samriddhi/सुप्रबन्धे राष्ट्र समृद्धि/ (Better Management for a Better Nation)
Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode – yogaḥ karmasu kauśalam / योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् / yogaH karmasu kaushalam (Excellence in action is yoga)
Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management Gwalior – viśvajīvanāmṛtam jñānam / विश्वजीवनामृतम् ज्ञानम् / vishvajeevanAmRRitam GYaanam (Knowledge is the nectar of Life)
Indian School of Mines Dhanbad – uttiṣṭha jāgrata prāpya varānnibodhata / उत्तिष्ठ जाग्रत प्राप्य वरान्निबोधत / uttiShTha jAgrata prApya varAnnibodhata (Arise, Awake and Learn by approaching excellent teachers)

Sid Harth

3:22 PM

#Padma Natarajan
Indian Statistical Institute – bhinneṣvaikyasya darśanam / भिन्नेष्वैक्यस्य दर्शनम् / bhinneShvaikyasya darshanam (See one in many) (even in differences, see the unity). “bhinneShu eva ekyasya darshanam”)
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad – yogaḥ karmasu kauśalam / योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् / yogaH karmasu kaushalam (Excellence in action is yoga)
Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya – prajñānam brahma / प्रज्ञानम ब्रह्म / praj~naanam brahma (Knowledge is the Soul)
Kendriya Vidyalaya – tattvaṃ pūṣanapāvṛṇu / तत्त्वं पूषनपावृणु / tattvaM pUShanapAvRRiNu ((Lord) Remove Thou the Covering (that the Seeker may see the Truth))
Kurukshetra University – yogastha kuru karmāṇi / योगस्थ कुरु कर्माणि / yogastha kuru karmANi (Do while steadfast in yoga)
Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, Gorakhpur – yogaḥ karmasu kauśalam / योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् / yogaH karmasu kaushalam (Excellence in action is yoga)
The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara – satyaṃ śivaṃ sundaram / सत्यं शिवं सुन्दरम् / satyaM shivaM sundaram (truth, auspiciousness, beauty)
Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapeeth-
Malaviya National Institute of Technology – yogaḥ karmasu kauśalam / योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् / yogaH karmasu kaushalam (Excellence in action is yoga)
Makhanlal Chaturvedi National University of Journalism and Communication – आ नो भद्राः क्रत वो यन्तु विश्वतः
Management Development Institute – yogaḥ karmasu kauśalam / योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् / yogaH karmasu kaushalam (Excellence in action is yoga)
Manipal University – pragyānam brahm / प्रज्ञानं ब्रह्म / pragyānam brahm (Knowledge is the attainment of God)
Modern School, New Delhi – “”Naimatma Balheenien Labhya”” (Perfection can only be achieved by the strong/The weak cannot achieve perfection)
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad – siddhirbhavati karmajā / सिद्धिर्भवति कर्मजा / siddhirbhavati karmajA (Success is born of action)
National Institute of Technology, Durgapur – udyogah purushasya lakshanam / उद्योगः पुरुषस्य लक्षणं / udyogah purushasya lakshanam (Industry is man’s objective)
National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur – Udyamena hi siddhayānti kāryāṇi na manorathaiḥ / उद्यमेन हि सिद्धयान्ति कार्याणि न मनोरथैः / A goal is achieved through labor, not by desire only (from Nīti Śatakaḥ by Bhartṛhari). Full text: Udyamena hi siddhayānti kāryāṇi na manorathaiḥ| na hī suptasya simhasya mukhe praviśanti mṛgaḥ|| (A goal is achieved through labor, not by desire only. As a deer by himself wouldn’t enter the mouth of a sleeping lion.)
National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra – śramonavarata ceṣṭā ca / श्रमोनवरत चेष्टा च / shramonavarata cheShTA cha (Tireless effort and attempt)
National Institute of Technology,Raipur – नित्यं यातो शुभोदयं / Nityam Yato Shubhodayam/Let the rise of goodness happen every day
Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology – ā no bhadrāḥ kratavo yantu viśvataḥ (1.89.1 rigveda) / आ नो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्तु विश्वतः / A no bhadraaH kratavo yantu vishvataH (Let good (thoughts) come from everywhere, from all the world)

Sid Harth

3:23 PM

#Padma Natarajan
Osmania University- tamaso mā jyotirgamaya / तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय / tamaso mA jyotirgamaya (Lead us from Darkness to Light)
National Law School of India University – dharmo rakṣati rakṣitaḥ / धर्मो रक्षति रक्षितः / dharmo rakShati rakShitaH (Values protect the protector (of values))
Rajhans Vidyalaya – vidyā vinayena śobhate / विद्या विनयेन शोभते / vidyA vinayena shobhate(Knowledge graces by humility)
Ramakrishna Mission – ātmano mokṣārthaṃ jagadhitāya ca / आत्मनो मोक्षार्थं जगधिताय च / Atmano mokShArthaM jagadhitAya cha(For one’s own salvation, and for the welfare of the world)
Ranchi University – tejasvi nāvadhītamastu / तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु / tejasvi naavadhiitamastu (May our knowledge become brilliant)
St. Xavier’s School, Bokaro – roopāntarikaraneeyam / रूपांतरीकरणीयं / rOOpantarikaranEEyam (Towards self-transformation)
Sainik School Rewa – vidyaiva balam / विद्यैव बलम् / vidyaiva balam (Knowledge is Power)
Sainik School, Chittorgarh – na dainyaṃ na palāyanam / न दैन्यं न पलायनम् / na dainyaM na palAyanam (no misery, no running away) (For a soldier, one should not seek mercy nor one should run away from the battlefield)
Sampurnanand Sanskrit University – Sśrutam me gopāya / श्रुतम् मे गोपाय / shrutam me gopaaya (Let my learning be safe, i.e. let it be fruitful, let me not forget my learning)
Samrat Ashok Technological Institute – yogaḥ karmasu kauśalam / योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् / yogaH karmasu kaushalam (Excellence in action is yoga)
Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning – satyaṃ vada dharmaṃ cara / सत्यं वद धर्मं चर / satyaM vada dharmaM chara (Speak the Truth, Walk the Righteous Path)
Sri Venkateswara University – Jnānam Samyaga Vekshanam
Tezpur University – Vijñānaṁ yajñaṁ tanutē / विज्ञानं यज्ञं तनुते / Vijñānaṁ yajñaṁ tanutē (Specialized Knowledge Promotes Creativity)
Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University – tamaso mā jyotirgamaya / तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय / tamaso mA jyotirgamaya (Lead Us from Darkness to Light)
University of Calicut – Nirmaya Karmana Sree
University of Colombo – Buddhih Sarvatra Brājate
University of Delhi – Nishtā Drithih Satyam

Sid Harth

3:24 PM

#Padma Natarajan
University of Hyderabad – Sa Vidhya Ya Vimukthaye (Education results in liberation)
University of Kerala – Karmani Vyajyate Prajna
University of Moratuwa – vidyaiva sarvadhanam / विद्यैव सर्वधनम् / vidyaiva sarvadhanam (Knowledge is the greatest wealth)
University of Mysore – Nahi Jnanena Sadrusham (Nothing is Equal to Knowledge) / Sathyamevoddharamyaham (I uphold only the truth)
University of Peradeniya – sarvasya locanaṃ śāstram / सर्वस्य लोचनं शास्त्रम् / sarvasya lochanaM shAstram (Science is the eye of all)
University of Pune – य: क्रियावान् स पण्डितः / yaH kriyAwAn sa paNDitaH (Learned is the one who is industrious)
University of Rajasthan – Dharmo Vishwasya Jagatah Pratishtha
Uttar Pradesh Technical University – yogaḥ karmasu kauśalam / योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् / yogaH karmasu kaushalam (Excellence in action is yoga)
Vidya Mandir Senior Secondary School – सह वीर्यं करवावहै / saha vIryam karavAvahai (Let the teacher and student together perform great acts of strength)
Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur – yogaḥ karmasu kauśalam / योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् / yogaH karmasu kaushalam (excellence in action is yoga)
West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences – Yuktiheena Vicharetu Dharmahnih Prajayate (Judgement Devoid of Logic Destroys Dharma)
M. J. P. Rohilkhand University- Charaiveti-Charaiveti / चरैवेति-चरैवेति – (Keep moving, keep moving)
Uttar Pradesh Police – Paritranaya sadhunam vinashaya cha dushkritam (For the upliftment of the good and virtuous, for the destruction of evil)
…and I am Sid Harth

Sid Harth

3:26 PM

My dear Padma Natarajan, time to hit the books. I find you extremely inane.Sid Harth
12:08 PM
*Declaration of Conflicting Interests The authors declared that they had no conflicts of interest with respect to their authorship or the publication of this article.
Funding This research was supported by a Bridging Brain, Mind and Behavior Collaborative Award through the James S. McDonnell Foundation’s 21st Century Science Initiative.
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Notes
↵1. We also recommend a recent practice guide from the U.S. Institute of Education Sciences (Pashler et al., 2007), which discusses some of the techniques described here. The current monograph, however, provides more in-depth and up-to-date reviews of the techniques and also reviews some techniques not included in the practice guide.
↵2. Although this presentation mode does not involve reading per se, reading comprehension and listening comprehension processes are highly similar aside from differences at the level of decoding the perceptual input (Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990).
↵3. We did not include learning conditions as a category of variable in this table because the techniques vary greatly with respect to relevant learning conditions. Please see the reviews for assessments of how well the techniques generalized across relevant learning conditions.Previous SectionReferences

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Sid Harth
12:13 PM
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12:23 PM
*
મોદીજી : અરે સીદ્ધાર્થજી શા માટે મને બોર કરો છો?સીદ્ધાર્થજી : અરે મોદીજી શા માટે દીકરા અને દીકરીઓનો તમે બોર કરો છો, હું હમઝા?હર હર મોદી ઘર ઘર મોદી.
જે મોદી છાપ રોટી ખાય, તે તુરંત વૈકુંઠ જાય…and I am Sid HarthHave a nice day, Oops, life Padma natarajan.

Sid Harth

3:31 PM

#Padma Natarajan
Sid Harth
12:13 PM
*Carr E.,
Bigler M.,
Morningstar C.
(1991). The effects of the CVS strategy on children’s learning. Learner Factors/Teacher Factors: Issues in Literacy Research and Instruction—40th Yearbook of the National Reading Conference (pp. 193–200). Rochester, NY: National Reading Conference.
Google Scholar

Carrier L. M.
(2003). College students’ choices of study strategies. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 96, 54–56.
CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Carroll M.,
Campbell-Ratcliffe J.,
Murnane H.,
Perfect T.
(2007). Retrieval-induced forgetting in educational contexts: Monitoring, expertise, text integration, and test format. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19, 580–606.
CrossRefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

Carvalho P. F.,
Goldstone R. L.
(2011, November). Comparison between successively presented stimuli during blocked and interleaved presentations in category learning. Paper presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Seattle, WA.
Google Scholar

Cashen M. C.,
Leicht K. L.
(1970). Role of the isolation effect in a formal educational setting. Journal of Educational Psychology, 61, 484–486.
CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Cepeda N. J.,
Coburn N.,
Rohrer D.,
Wixted J. T.,
Mozer M. C.,
Pashler H.
(2009). Optimizing distributed practice: Theoretical analysis and practical implications. Experimental Psychology, 56, 236–246.
CrossRefMedlineOrder article via InfotrieveWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

Cepeda N. J.,
Pashler H.,
Vul E.,
Wixted J. T.,
Rohrer D.
(2006). Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 354–380.
CrossRefMedlineOrder article via InfotrieveWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

Cepeda N. J.,
Vul E.,
Rohrer D.,
Wixted J. T.,
Pashler H.
(2008). Spacing effects in learning: A temporal ridgeline of optimal retention. Psychological Science, 19, 1095–1102.
Abstract/FREE Full Text

Cermak L. S.,
Verfaellie M.,
Lanzoni S.,
Mather M.,
Chase K. A.
(1996). Effect of spaced repetitions on amnesia patients’ recall and recognition performance. Neuropsychology, 10, 219–227.
CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sid Harth
12:23 PM
*
મોદીજી : અરે સીદ્ધાર્થજી શા માટે મને બોર કરો છો?સીદ્ધાર્થજી : અરે મોદીજી શા માટે દીકરા અને દીકરીઓનો તમે બોર કરો છો, હું હમઝા?હર હર મોદી ઘર ઘર મોદી.
જે મોદી છાપ રોટી ખાય, તે તુરંત વૈકુંઠ જાય…and I am Sid HarthHave a nice day, Oops, life Padma natarajan.…and I am Sid Harth

+Sid Harth
MR SId Hartha …You please stay in secular USA ..dont ever come to INDIA or Preach anything ..And keep update your knowledge by reading report generated by west countires/Universities and never get know what is happening in INDIA …and Dont ever  preach us about imported secularism term to INDIA ..Yes India do have its own problem as many countries do have its own..so Indian problem need Indian solution not imported from other countries..keep your comparison/preaches in your pocket …never dream about INDAIN future ..Keep clam/cool …

Sid Harth

4:21 PM

#Padma NatarajanI am a task master too. Learn following Sanskrit terms related to Modi’s revolutionary theme of educating children. साध्य साधना आराधना सामुग्री क्रिया कर्म पध्दति प्रयोग प्रवास ऊचित उत्कर्षFirst refers to a desire or a destiny. Is it possible for Modi’s approach–lecturing poor, hapless underage students. That is his desire. Is it possible, destiny?
Second refers to whatever it takes, no matter how difficult or for how long. School calendars are limited to days, weeks and months, barring public holidays and special days to forget classroom activities and devote time to mandated and enforced Modi style long lecture.
Third refers to continuous, uninterrupted learning and practicing.
Fourth refers to much needed materials, like a pen, pencil, a text book, an exercise book practice books, etc. I have personal experience (Nashik) that these very common necssities are lacking in small as well as large private and public schools, including Municipal schools. Forget about hi-tech gadgets that Modi wants–computers, high speed internet connections, et al.
Fifth refers to practicals in case of science related subjects, say a well equipped laboratory and trained teachers, demonstrators.
Sixth refers to the willingness of students to go through the process.
Seventh refers to an orderly plan, approved and agreed to by those who set the rules. In politics, this is practically impossible.
Eighth refers to a journey, not a single act.
Ninth refers to if it is recommended, for instance for a student in a village surrounding, where the immediate need is for a student to learn everything about agriculture, animal husbandry or related knowledge-base and not learn strange technology that has no local outlet.
The last refers to a natural desire to move from one point to the higher destination. Not every student is qualified to be a scientist, a scholar and a political ‘task master.’Hope what I said helps.…and I am Sid harth

Sid Harth

4:29 PM

#Satish Mujagond
Thanks for your good wishes. For a while, I wanted to come back.. I tried very hard to establish myself and my family in Nashik, my hometown. I did not succeed and had to return. My monetary loss, itself was more than $100,000.
People are just not ready for progressive and beneficial methods. They are immune to Western methods. As a matter of fact, judging your silly advise to me, they are absolutely idiotic.By the way, dear, Satish Mujagod, what do you do for living? Preach foreigners like me? Shame on you. This Google+ platform is meant to have conversation, mild or heated. Crazy Hindu nationalists, don’t own it. Check out Google rules of behavior. They accept stupidity, apparently.Have a nice day.

 

Mired in controversy, Irani left with little time for policy initiatives

Written by Ruhi Tewari | New Delhi | September 5, 2014 1:33 am

Human Resource Development Minister Smriti Irani impressed all with her extempore address at the International Women’s Conference, but has preferred to focus on issues that do not require to be fixed. Under her watch, the University Grants Commission (UGC) had clamped down on the Delhi University’s Four Year Undergraduate Programme (FYUP) soon after clearing it under the previous Congress-led government, dared the IITs and silently stood by as Gujarat adopted RSS activist Dina Nath Batra’s books in its schools.

Most of her moves have met with sharp criticism, with some senior Cabinet colleagues acknowledging that the education sector needs to be attended to, but definitely not by restraining innovation and chipping into the autonomy of institutions. At an Express Adda event in Mumbai on August 27, Union Finance and Defence Minister Arun Jaitley pointed out the need to liberalise the sector by allowing more autonomous universities and independent institutions.

Irani’s 100 days were mired in controversy, leaving her little time to look ahead and focus on policy initiatives aimed at opening up a sector that has largely remained untouched over two decades.

As soon as the Narendra Modi government took charge, it had to contend with the FYUP controversy because the UGC asked the Delhi University to admit students under the conventional three-year degree programmes. This U-turn happened a month after the new government took charge at the Centre, and with its backing, the UGC warned the university of strict action if the order was flouted. After resisting the UGC order, the DU finally scrapped FYUP in June end and reverted to the three-year degree format so the stalled admission process could begin.

In yet another indication of the politicisation of education under this government’s watch, books authored by long-time RSS activist Dina Nath Batra, convenor of the Shiksha Bachao Andolan Samiti, were made compulsory reading in government schools in Gujarat. The books have titles like Indianisation of Education, Brilliant India and Vedic Mathematics.

Fresh controversy erupted earlier this month with the UGC’s communique to the IITs asking them to “align their courses and degrees with the ones recognised by the UGC”. This came under widespread criticism from IITs which claimed they are autonomous institutes governed by the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961. Several IIT directors lashed out at the UGC for trying to fix a system that has done very well for the country.

The UGC issued a clarification, stating its communication had been “misconstrued” and claiming it had the “responsibility of specification of degrees”. The HRD ministry’s stand, meanwhile, seemed ambiguous. It just urged both to work out an “appropriate solution”.

In the midst of all this, the ministry launched some new policies like the Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao Yojana to take up programmes for education of girls in a focused manner. The Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat initiative under the SSA aims to improve language development in children by creating an interest in reading and writing with comprehension, and an interest in mathematics.

Source: Indian Express

…and I am Sid Harth